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北镇的神The Gods of North Town  

2016-03-23 22:08:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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北镇不就是一个镇子吗?去之前我还真就这么想。其实北镇是历史上“五镇”之一,曾经是与“五岳”齐名的五座名山。随着历史长河流去,和这五个和五岳齐名的“五镇”给淹没了。很多人还真不知道北镇的历史。

北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客

North Town; just sounds like a regular town, doesn’t it? That’s what I thought too before I went there. As it turns out North Town is one of the “Five Great Towns”, which historically paralleled the fame of China’s “Five Great Peaks”, the former gradually being surpassed by the latter with the passage of time. Today, many people are completely unaware of the history of North Town.

东镇沂山(位于山东省临朐县)、西镇吴山(位于陕西省宝鸡市陈仓区)、南镇会稽山(位于浙江省绍兴市东南)、北镇医巫闾山(位于辽宁省北镇市)、中镇霍山(位于山西省霍州市)。其它四镇都在长城以南,唯有北镇医巫闾山坐落在山海关外,扼守东北与中原之间的交通咽喉。它是中原政权敕封的圣山,却有一个蛮荒色彩又带有关隘的一个名字;在中原人心目中的“镇北之山”,有很强烈的阻碍之意,然而它却长期被北方游牧政权控制。古时候的北镇从来都不安宁,鲜卑、契丹、女真等民族先后从这里跃马南下,把中原搅了个天翻地覆。

Here are the Five Great Towns and their modern-day locations: East Town is located on Mount Yi (Linqu County, Shandong), West Town on Mount Wu (Chencang District, Baoji City, Shaanxi), South Town on Mount Huiji (southeast Shaoxing City, Zhejiang), North Town on Mount Yiwulü (Beizhen City, Liaoning), and Center Town on Mount Huo (Huozhou City, Shanxi). Four of these towns are built to the south of the Great Wall, the only exception being North Town, which is situated on the north side of Shanhai Pass, strategically protecting the transportation bottleneck from the northeast and central plains regions. Mount Yiwulü is a sacred mountain and important political regime center, yet its name is reminiscent of the languages spoken by the very people it is intended to defend against. Among the people of the northern plains this mountain is said to prevent attacks from the north, and they believe it to be virtually impassable, yet throughout history it was captured time and again by the nomadic tribes, such as the Xianbei, Khitan and Jurchen peoples, who from here travelled southward and caused great havoc among the central plains.

直到今天,北京的地坛、先农坛,依然摆放着供奉它们的神位。“海渎”搁下不表,单说这“岳镇”。五岳的话,到现在仍是众人皆知。而五镇,却没多少人知道。

Beijing’s Temple of Earth and Temple of the Agriculture God both have spiritual tablets dedicated to these towns. Unlike other locations of Daoist lore, like the Underwater World, which are pure legend, the Five Great Towns exist in reality. If that’s the case, why are they so much less well-known than the Five Great Peaks? 

找了一个周末闲游去了北镇,看看“北镇”,和“医巫闾”山。“医巫闾”这个名词不仅有些拗口怪异,甚至会让人和信仰联系在一起。其实“医巫闾”确实和信仰有关系,这倒是我这次去北镇的收获。

I waited for a weekend when I had no plans and paid a visit to North Town and Mount Yiwulü. The name “Yiwulü” is not only strange-sounding and difficult to pronounce, it also feels somewhat religious in nature. As it turns out the name is in fact related to religion, and this was one of the biggest insights I gained on my visit to North Town.

    过去在北镇“除了北镇庙、崇兴寺、大观音阁、青岩寺、三清观这些我们现在还能看到、或是新近重修的庙宇以外,北镇的古城内原来还有好多出名的大庙近百座之多,老母堂、五龙门、马神庙、三官庙、白衣庵、茶棚庵、毗卢庵、大平庵、圣母庙、兴福寺、福国寺、净业庵、极乐庵、圆通庵等诸多庙宇,如今均已荡然无存。唯有北镇庙值得一看。

Several of the temples in North Town still remain, mainly including North Town Temple, Chongxing Temple, Great Bodhisattva Pavilion, Black Cliff Temple, and Sanqing Temple, but there are also almost a hundred famous temples that have gradually disappeared: Old Mother Hall, Five Dragon Gate, Horse God Temple, Three Officials Temple, White Robe Convent, Tea Stable Convent, Pilu Convent, Daping Convent, Holy Mother Temple, Xingfu Temple, Fuguo Temple, Jingye Convent, Jile Convent and Yuantong Convent, to name a few. Among the extant temples, only North Town Temple is well worth a visit.

        北镇庙是北方镇山医巫闾山的山神庙,庙内文革期间是一个美术学院,所以格局、碑文得以保存完好。傍晚时分的北镇庙好像是一个被遗忘的碑林,非常适宜品味庙内空旷的静修之地。夜晚在庙中拍摄更是让自己置身于碑文诵读包围之中。仰望洁净空中的星轨划过历史长河之瞬间。碑文隐隐月溶溶,似谱弦歌写素衷。如今庙内留下自元代以来的告祭碑、修庙碑记、题咏刻石共计56通。其中元碑12通,明碑16通,清碑28通,这些石碑都是研究元、明、清三代政治、经济、文化的珍贵史料。

The North Town Temple is the temple of the mountain god watching over Mount Yiwulü. During the Cultural Revolution, the temple was converted into an arts academy, so the structure and tablet inscriptions are very well preserved. At dusk the temple feels like a forgotten forest of stone steles, and is an ideal place to experience the tranquility of an ancient temple. Taking photos at night I fight like I was completely surrounded by stone tablet inscriptions, and was quite aware of the stars in the otherwise empty sky, which have bore witness to all the temple has undergone throughout history. The scene reminded me of a classical Chinese poem: “The tablet inscriptions are faint, the moon clear; together like a song of pure emotion.” Today 56 steles remain on the temple grounds (Yuan dynasty 12, Ming 16, Qing 28), including ceremonial steles, temple record steles and poem inscription steles. These steles are precious sources for research on the politics, economics and culture of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.

    在“医巫闾”最有名的神就是“歪脖老母”了。东北人可能不知道“医巫闾”山,但是都知道“歪脖老母”之神奇。其实民间其它的一些信仰在这里随处都能看到,除了景区,在梨花、杏花开遍满山的季节,在山间花岗岩上的辽代石刻随处可以寻找到那些虽说年代久远,但是已经模糊不清的辽代造像,岁月的痕迹虽说把这些石造像打磨的几尽剥落,但是用手去触摸造像上的那凹凸不平线条时依然会感觉到落指之处阻腻顺滑,从指间触动你的想象,让你品味十足。当地百姓还有在石像下供奉放置财神、观音、佛像、老君等各种自己信仰神像的习惯,有时儒、释、道、等民间候众神在道庙齐聚摆放一起,看起来很是滑稽,但这不失是一种民间精神民俗、心理民俗信仰的包容。这种崇拜是一个绚丽多彩的地缘文化,它展示了一个地域民族的性格精神,维系着崇拜者的感情使人产生对群体的皈依感,是民众精神情感上的需要。给人以安慰给人以安定感。

In Yiwulü the most famous god is the “Crooked-Necked Old Mother”. The people of northeastern China may not be familiar with Mount Yiwulü, while virtually all of them know the legend of this god. But aside from her, other religious elements can be found everywhere here, even outside the tourist areas. The best time to visit is when the flowers of the pear and apricot trees are in bloom, as their petals cover the stone sculptures from the Liao dynasty, their surfaces worn with age, but their contours smooth to the touch, your tactile sense invoking visions of an age long past. Beneath the stone statues the locals will often place statues of gods they believe in, including Buddhas, Boddhisattvas, the Money God, and the King of the Gods, for a fusion of Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism that may at first seem silly, but it shows the extent of inclusion of religion among the locals and their devout piety to these gods. This is the basis for the dynamic local culture here, their personality and spirit, while maintaining the sentiments of the worshippers, so that they may have a collective sense of belonging, which is a necessary element for any society to thrive, and for its people to feel comfortable and secure.

    这些“医巫闾”山上的信仰习俗往往是被人所忽略的一种景观,我觉得到山上走走倒是一种信仰的观看和体验,就像人本身的生命流转一样是个谜。

These religious customs that can be witnessed atop Mount Yiwulü are often neglected by visitors, but I think walking in these mountains is a way to see and experience these beliefs, which to me are as enigmatic as the cycle of life itself.

ll-known than the Five Great Peaks?

北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客

五岳五镇在中国的分布,多数人已经不记得中国还有“五镇”

北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客

 北镇庙是一个很值得静静观赏的地方
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 虽说经历历代的修建,北镇的双塔依然是辽代的建筑象征。东塔高约43.8米,西塔高约42.6米
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 “医巫闾”山。上的松柏
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 在古时候记载,站在“医巫闾”山的最高处可以看到远处的渤海湾
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 现今北镇依然是生活安逸之地
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
“医巫闾”山。上的寺院不少,此修炼之地乃是道家为多
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 这是上山前的“踩小人”雕塑,踩踩脚下的小人图个顺利
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 庙宇一角,香火可以预约
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 祈愿自己有一个好的收入,百万估计多为希望
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 上山的道路挂满了彩带,很像藏族的经帆,上面写的都是自己的愿望
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 钱对祈愿者来说不在多少,愿望而已,但是对景区来说多多益善
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 人神共处和为贵
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 老人、孩子每个人的愿望都不一样
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 歪脖老母是这里最神的信仰
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 拜神讲究的是心诚则灵,慰籍心灵
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 众神齐聚在一起,看是滑稽,实则包容
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 莲花指造像
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 附近的山上,侵蚀的花岗岩石头上到处放着老百姓送上来的神像
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 山上的辽代石刻像虽说风化严重,但是依然可以看出,且随处可见
北镇的神 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 据说这是一个祭坛,而今可以躺在上面感受一下那个血雨腥风的朝代


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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