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漂流在黄河上的人家 A nomad fishing family   

2013-05-06 18:16:07|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 我最早结识的水上人家是孙贵友。他们这些生活在水上的人家被称之为“水上吉普赛”人

        The first fishing boat family I met was that of Sun Guiyou. Their lifestyle has earned this kind of people the nickname “water gypsies”.

漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客

2003721。为了能找到这些漂流在水上的人家,我在水库的南岸村里雇了两个本地渔民,给了他们60块钱的船费,让他们划着小船带着我在水库里寻找这些渔民。从上午找到下午,我们在水库里漂流了近6个小时,在水库北岸的一个峡谷水道里,发现了他们这些水上人家。我们十几艘聚靠在一起形成了一个水上村落。当时,孙贵友一家正和其他几家船民一起正在他们家的船上打牌,我们的小船靠了上去。我说明来意,老孙的儿子孙根喜伸手把我拉上了他们家的船。就这样我和他们一家认识了,而且一来往就是十二年。他们一家至今还生活在黄河上,这十年当中我一有空就去看望他们、拍摄他们的生活.

      On July 21, 2003, I went to search for one such family. On the bank of a reservoir I paid some fisherman 60 yuan to take me out in a little boat to meet some of the families who lived on the water. Morning passed into afternoon, and after almost six hours on the river, we finally came to a canyon where we found some boathouses. There were about a dozen of them, huddled together like a tiny village. I saw who I would later know as Sun Guiyou, playing cards with some of the other nomad fishermen. Our small boat pulled up, and I explained why I was there. Sun Guiyou’s son Sun Genxi reached out and pulled me up onto the deck of their houseboat. That was how I met them, 12 years ago, and ever since we’ve kept in close contact, as whenever I have time I go to see them, and catalog their daily life with my photos.

当时, 51岁的孙贵友家有两艘船,已经结婚的大儿子孙根喜一条,没有结婚的小儿子老虎和两个女儿跟着他们老夫妻俩人生活在另一条船上。孙家祖籍江苏盐城,他祖父的时代,他们就不停地沿着运河游走在江浙一带的河流之中,靠打渔为生,到了民国时期,一家人迁徙到了河南信阳息县,至今已有五代人。

       At the time, Sun Guiyou was 51, and their family had two boats, one for themselves and their younger unmarried son Tiger and their two daughters, and one for their older son Genxi and his wife. The Sun family’s ancestors were from Yancheng, Jiangsu, and beginning from his grandfather’s generation, the family lived on the rivers of the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region, fishing for a living; during the Republic of China era, they relocated to Xi County, Xinyang, Henan, where they have been for five generations now.

 他的身份证上是这样写的:河南省息县城关镇船民304。他们世世代代都是生活在船上,在陆地是没有土地和户口的,即使是在新中国成立后,他们在信阳息县依然没有土地、也没有宅院。

     Sun Guiyou’s photo ID states his home address as: “Chengguan Township, Xi County, Henan, fishing boat #304”. Their family has lived on the water through several eras of China’s history, thus even after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, they still have no property or home on the land to call their own.

孙贵友从小在渔船上长大,爷爷和父亲那一代的时候,也曾经到过淮河流域捕鱼,那时候一天可以捕许多鱼,用孙贵友的话说是:“一筐一筐地往外卖”。后来淮河的污染日趋严重,到了90时候,他们不得不拉着船到处漂泊。他们先后到过内蒙、宁夏、湖北、山西、陕西等地,在那里的河流和湖泊里打过鱼。8年前,老孙带着一家老小迁徙到了黄河流域,在小浪底水库建成后,他们又从下游移居到上游的水库里面。

        Sun Guiyou grew up on this boat, and during his grandfather and father’s time, their family fished in the Huai River basin. At that time there were lots of fish, and, in Guiyou’s words, they “sold baskets and baskets of them every day”. Eventually the Huai River started to become polluted, and by 1990, they had no choice but to travel all over looking for bigger catches. They fished in the rivers and lakes of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Hubei, Shanxi and Shaanxi. Eight years ago, Guiyou and his family came to the waters of the Yellow River, and after the completion of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, that’s where they made their home.

因为人多,在老孙家睡觉都很成问题。晚上,两个女儿和老伴睡进船舱里,老孙、小儿子老虎和我就只能睡在大船的甲板上。夏日里这样倒是凉爽自在,但是冬天的滋味就很难体会了。我第一次在泊在水面的船,身体随着船体和波浪轻摇,又没有蚊子的叮扰,感觉倒是挺舒服。

        The number of people on the boat makes sleeping arrangements quite difficult. Guiyou’s wife and two daughters sleep in the cabin, while Guiyou, his son and I sleep on the deck. It’s actually quite cool out here in the summer, although I can’t say I’ve experienced the winter. The first time I spent the night on their boat, I didn’t get seasick from the gentle rocking of the boat; I actually found the swaying quite comfortable, and as an added bonus there are no mosquitos.

零晨4,飞翔在水面上的水鸟开始啾啾叫的时候,老孙就起来忙着催促睡梦中的孩子准备出船收网。小儿子老虎迷迷糊糊起来的时候打着哈欠就上了小船。收鱼的时候老孙的三女儿一条船,大儿子和小儿子一条船。小女儿和老伴在家做饭。

        At 4 am, as the birds soaring across the water are beginning to call, Guiyou wakes the children up to take in the nets. Tiger is still half asleep and yawning as he takes to a small boat. On the other is the older daughter, while the younger daughter and Guiyou’s wife prepare breakfast.

头天晚上儿子下的是捕虾的笼网,老孙和女儿下的是捕鱼的粘网。老孙和女儿下的两张网长达1000多米,但是今天的收获却不怎么样。两张鱼网共捞上来18条三两重的鲫鱼,和一些不好卖的白条鱼。老孙告诉我说,几年前他们刚到水库这里的时候,一网有时候能打上几百斤的鱼。随着水库蓄水量的上升,排入水库的各种生产生活污水大量增加,加上这两年库区的捕捞者增多,很多捕鱼人用的极细的围网,再小的鱼都被一网打尽,使得现在能捕到的鱼愈来愈少了。

        The previous day the son had set down a “basket net” for trapping shrimp, and the daughter a “sticky net” for catching fish. Although the two nets put together are over 1000 m in length, the catch is nothing to get excited about: they got 18 modestly sized crucian carps, and some sharpbellies, which are difficult to sell. Guiyou tells me that a few years ago, each day they could catch up to several hundred pounds of fish here, but after the water capacity of the reservoir was increased, so did the amount of industrial and domestic wastewater pouring into it, combined with the influx of fishers in recent years, many of whom use very fine nets capable of catching anything, so it’s become harder and harder to fish here.

这天老孙和两个儿子一起打了20多斤的河虾,被鱼贩子按2元钱一斤的价格给收购了,这些河虾在被卖到市场上价格就会达到七八元一斤,因为鱼虾的价格都是由这些当地的鱼贩子来定的,在这里打鱼的渔民又不敢不卖给他们,他们一家9口今天的收入就是40这多元钱。

        But on this day they also caught about 20 pounds, which they could sell to the fish market for 2 yuan per pound. These river shrimp would then be sold for almost four times that, but since the prices are decided by the vendors, the fishermen here have no real choice but to sell it to them for this price. So the income today, of their family of nine, is just over 40 yuan.

刚卖完鱼,当地水上的鱼政船就开到了老孙的船前,他们是来向老孙收取渔政管理费的,说老孙已经有两个月没有给他们缴渔政管理费了。今天刚收入的40块钱根本不够给他们缴费,上次因为没有及时缴费,渔政已经把他们的一条小船给拖走了,渔政说:“这次要是再不交费的话他们的小船就可能被给卖掉了。经过反复的诉苦,老孙还是答应随后尽快补缴所欠下的管理费。

       After selling their catch, the local fishing authorities pull up to the Sun family’s boat, saying that they’re there to collect the administrative fees, which they haven’t paid in two months. The 40 yuan they made today is nowhere near enough, and after not having paid last time one of their small fishing boats was towed away, with the warning that if they didn’t pay up they may sell their boat as compensation. After much negotiation, Guiyou eventually agrees to pay for the fees he owed as soon as possible.

当我们问老孙是否还想念老家江苏盐城时,他用力摇了摇头。在水上漂泊生活了50多年,对家乡的观念是越来越淡了,在他的眼里,哪里有鱼哪里就是家。小小的住家船,有的住三四个人,有的住六七个人,一家三代有时就挤在一条船上,起居生活都很不方便,老孙说最大的愿望就是盼着能搬到岸上居住,希望有一片自己的土地,那里能收留他们,在陆地上划出一块地方让他们盖上一所属于自己的房子,那才是真正的家,是他们家几代人的梦想。”

       When I ask Guiyou if he missed his hometown of Yancheng, Jiangsu, he shakes his head, saying that he has lived on the water for more than 50 years, and that the concept of a “hometown” means less and less; to him, home is where the fish are. On these small houseboats are families of three or four, sometimes six or seven, and some even have three generations all crammed on, making life for them very difficult. Guiyou says, “My biggest wish is for us to be able to move on the shore, to have a piece of land, and build a house that we can call our own. That would be a real home, and that’s been my family’s dream for generations.”

724,老孙的老伴要过生日,已经嫁出去三年的的两个女儿、女婿就来看他们。女儿女婿在郑州花园口一带开水上餐厅,经济收入要比捕鱼来得快,赚的也来多些。听女儿女婿们说的这么好老孙也动心了。于是动了去哪里开水上餐厅的念头“实在不行我也到那里去做水上餐厅生意老孙说。

       On July 24, Guiyou’s wife’s birthday, their daughters who have been married for three years already come to visit, along with their husbands. Both couples run “floating restaurants” in the Huayuankou area of Zhengzhou, which brings in more money, and at a faster rate, than fishing. After hearing about their business, Guiyou suddenly becomes interested in opening his own floating restaurant.

 到了9月份,老孙的儿子跟喜给我打电话,他们已经不能在小浪底水库的北岸打鱼了,由于打不到更多的鱼,又没钱给当地的渔政交管理费,被扣的一条船至今也没有还给他们,老孙只好他们将船从水库的北岸转移到了南岸,来躲避北岸渔政的追查在南岸老孙将他的一条大船以8000多元的价格给卖掉,一家人准备转场到花园口二个女儿女婿那里去。

        In September, Guiyou’s son Genxi calls me, saying that they had to move from the north shore of the reservoir, since there wasn’t enough fish, and they couldn’t afford the administration fees, on top of which they didn’t return the fishing boat they confiscated, so Guiyou had no choice but to “take off”. The relocated to the south shore, where they could escape the fishing administration of the north shore, and sold their large steel boat for 8000 yuan, after which their plan was to join their daughters in Huayuankou.

1017。一大早老孙便和两个儿子拔锚起航将船开到水库的北岸,找到一家在水库施工的公司,花了800元钱雇佣了一台吊车,才将大小船只和家当吊到大卡车上,拉到小浪底大坝下游的一座大桥上,再用吊车将船吊到了黄河河道里。老孙一家人顺而下前往花园口去和他们的女儿女婿汇合。

        October 17. Early in the morning Guiyou’s family pulls in the anchor and heads for the north shore, where they find a construction company working at the reservoir. They pay 800 yuan to hire a crane to lift all their boats onto a truck, which brings them the Xiaolangdi Dike, where the crane puts them down again on the Yellow River. Their family then follows the river toward Huayuankou.

2004年的5月份,五一的假期,我又到花园口找到他们一家。

        In May, 2004, during the May Day vacation, I went to Huayuankou to pay them a visit.

当时跟喜正在给一条新船刷漆。搬家的时候没有钱,他们卖掉了一条大船。一条船也住不下,打了近一年的鱼,赚了一些钱,他们又造了一条新船。老孙告诉我说:“来到这里才知道开水上餐厅跟想象的不一样,当地人不容许我们来这里抢生意,还发生了冲突,大儿子跟喜被当地人打伤,报警警察也不管。没办法,我们只好撤出把船开到花园口,每天还在河上打鱼、卖鱼为生。”老孙说时候脸上没有表情,我知道,他心里是没有办法。

        When I arrive, Genxi is painting a new boat. After selling one of their boats, the other one wasn’t big enough for all of them, and after fishing for a year, they could finally afford to buy this new one. Guiyou tells me, “After arriving here I realized how different opening a floating restaurant was from what I imagined. The people here don’t want anyone stealing their business, we had a conflict with them, and Genxi was injured. We called the police, but they didn’t do anything. We had no choice but to head to Huayuankou, and keep fishing.” As he tells me this there is no expression on his face, and I know how much this must have hurt him.

200451930分左右,老孙他们停泊的黄河对岸,一艘河南原阳县韩董庄乡摆渡的船发生翻船事故,船上的27名乘客落入黄河。老孙一家加入了营救的行列,他们一共救起6人。在随后的搜救当中他们冒着大雨在河面上搜索失踪人员。跟喜家的小女儿发烧在家,没有得到及时的治疗,最后成为聋哑人事故发生后,船主居然想把责任加害在老孙的头上,居然说老孙的船把他们的船给撞沉了。如果不是调查及时,这顶帽子就有可能扣在他的头上。老孙说:“如果罪名成立,这个事故也许就把他给枪毙了.”想想很是后怕。事后河南省政府还是表扬了他的见义勇为行为,但是有关部门对他的承诺一项一项也没有兑现。那些被他救上来的人没有一个前来感谢他们一家。这些年他们一家在黄河上先后救起20个轻生者,他们被救后都是一走了之。每每谈起这事老孙都是摇着头,他说:“我不明白为什么这些人都没有感恩之心,我也没有给他们要钱、没有让他们救济我,难道别人救了你的命,一句话感谢的话都不该说吗、”

        On May 1, 2004, at around 9:30 am, the Sun family were banked on the Yellow River, when a ferry boat from the nearby town of Dongxhuan capsized, plummeting 27 passengers into the water. Guiyou and his family aided in the rescue, saving a total of six people. Under the pouring rain, they also helped searched for the missing people. Meanwhile, Genxi’s daughter was at home with a fever, which wasn’t treated in time, and she ended up losing her hearing. Later, the captain of the ferry had the nerve to place the blame for the accident on Guiyou, saying that he crashed into the ferry and caused it to capsize. If Guiyou hadn’t looked into the matter before the conflict, the responsibility for the incident may have just fallen upon him. Guiyou says, “If he’s found guilty, a screw-up this bad may be enough for him to get the death sentence.” A frightening matter to say the least. Afterwards the Henan provincial government praised Guiyou for his bravery, but of all the promises the related departments made, none came to fruition. And of the people they saved, not one came to thank them. In their years on the Yellow River, they’ve saved about 20 people, and afterwards every single one of them just turned and walked away. Every time this topic rises Guiyou just shakes his head; “I don’t understand why these people have no sense of gratitude, I didn’t ask them for money, to help us out or anything, but if someone saves your life, you don’t even say thank you?”

为了能在郑州这一段黄河上有个落脚的水域,老孙一家辗转到中牟、开封、兰考的黄河上漂流了一年多,其间儿子被打伤、一家人不时的被当地人赶走。流浪漂流期间,一家人在黄河上救起十几个溺水的人

        Hoping to find a place on the Yellow River where they could settle down and stay for a while, they traveled for over a year to Zhongmou, Kaifeng and Lankao, during which time his son was injured and they were forced away time after time. While drifting around, they saved at least another dozen people from drowning.

 20064月,一家人才在朋友的帮助下在黄河大桥上游的浮桥边安定下来,利用自己家的两条船开起了渔家餐厅。

        In April, 2006, with the help of friends, they finally found a place by a pontoon bridge in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, where they turned their two boats into a floating restaurant.

201310郑州去参加老孙小儿子老虎的婚礼时,老孙非常兴奋地告诉我说:老马,我买房子了,以后我在岸上有房子了

        In October, 2013, when I went to attend their younger son’s wedding, Guiyou was extremely excited to tell me: “Hongjie, we finally bought a house, we’ll have a house on the shore now!”

老孙的房子是在老家息县买的,他说:“人老了都想到回家里。

        The house they bought was in their hometown, Xi County. He says, “When people get to a certain age, they want to return home.”

20151月。老虎生了一个女儿。

        In January, 2015, their younger son’s wife gave birth to a daughter.

20156月。我去郑州黄河边找老孙一家,看到只剩下老孙自己的一条船停在那里。老孙说:“老虎自己在郑州南郭头黄河边开了一家水上餐厅,和他妈在那边,我跟老大在这边。”

         In June, 2015, I went to visit them in Zhengzhou on the bank of the Yellow River, and saw that only Guiyou’s boat was docked there. He told me, “Tiger opened his own floating restaurant in Nanguotou, his mother’s there too, here it’s just our older son and myself.”

在南郭头我找到了孙老虎,十几年前的小伙子已经变得成熟甚至沧桑许多,做事和做生意开始计较价值。

        In Nanguotou I found Tiger, who since over a decade had become much more mature, even kind of old-looking, and in business, as well as other matters, had become very attentive to value and cost.

见到老孙的老伴我说:“你们不是卖了房子,老了怎么不回老家住?”老太太小声的说:“那房子不属于我们俩了,属于老虎和他媳妇地。当时结婚的时候不答应把房子给人家就不结婚,没办法,给他们俩吧。我们俩一个跟着老大,一个跟着老二,到老了还的分开。”

        Upon seeing Guiyou’s wife I ask, “Didn’t you buy a house? How come you’re not there?” To which she replies, in a whisper, “That house isn’t ours anymore, it’s for Tiger and his wife. They said if we didn’t give it to them they wouldn’t get married, so we did. Now one of us is with our first son and one with the second, in the end we’re split up.”

这就是他们的养老,这就是一个百姓的真是生活,活的无奈,还的活着。

        This is how they spend their old age. No matter what life throws at you, you still have to live.

漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
老孙家有二条渔船,大儿子一条,他和没有成家的儿女们一条。二家人吃、住、行都在水上
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
船家都把小孩子身上绑一根绳子,以防孩子掉入水里找不到 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
老孙的小儿子“老虎”总是闲不住,在船上、在水上有用不完的精力 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
10月17日。一家人要把船上的棚子拆除,准备翻过小浪底大坝到黄河下游去和女儿女婿汇合 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
租来的吊车将船吊到货车上,翻过大坝后再吊到下游河道 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
翻过大坝后在桥上把船吊到河里,他们一家就顺流而下前往郑州花园口 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
2006年。老孙一家才在黄河大桥上游安顿下来,利用自家的二艘船开起水上餐厅
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
餐厅也就是夏季能有些收入,冬季的时候老孙一家还只能靠在黄河上打鱼生活 
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
简陋的渔家餐厅吸引着城里的人们来品尝美味的黄河鱼
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
自收到假币后,老孙的小儿子老虎收钱时特别注意,
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 有钱的人是开着车前来黄河边购买他们打上来的黄河鲤鱼
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
2010小女儿嫁给这个老家的这个男孩子,没有想到他们的孩子刚出生,丈夫就突然去世,留下她和一对双胞胎
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 老孙拿出他六十年代的猎枪证给我看,他说那时候的各种鸟类多的很,公家发给他们枪让他们打。2007年老孙后来不知在那里弄到一根猎枪,冬季时候在黄河滩上打了几只大雁。结果不知道被谁告发。2008年3月25日,被前来的公安机关行政拘留,后被判处缓刑。
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 老孙的孙女小雨十年前和十年后的样子
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 没事干得时候,老虎在联系车技
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
 老虎在给我看他新谈女朋友照片,后来这个女朋友也告吹了,老妈也在一旁为他的婚事发愁
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
黄河边常有前来拍婚纱照的新人,老虎就凑上前去欣赏。这次穿个裤衩居然想和新娘子照个合影,被新郎官给拒绝了
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
2014年1月30日。老虎终于结婚了,新娘子是老家信阳息县的
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
新房就是这条船,新的生活就靠他们自己开船航行
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
  2015年冬季老虎媳妇给他生了个女儿
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
2015年6月。昔日的小伙子开始自己的生活,人也变得有些沧桑
漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
老虎的家当比他爹多不了多少,很多东西船上无法使用
 漂流在黄河上的人家 - 马宏杰 - 马宏杰的博客
2015年6月的拍摄使用了航拍器,从空中看看他们俩的家
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